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it as their trade mark on all bill-headings and advertisements, and where appropriate on the articles they made. Even at that date, it was attracting the attention of historians. The following communication appeared in Notes and Queries for 1850.
    "In April 1850, Hayward Bros. (Late Henly & Co.), wholesale and manufacturing ironmongers, 196, Blackfriars Road and 117/118, Union Street, Borough (who state their business to have been established in 1783) put forth an advertisement headed with a woodcut of a dog eating out of a three-legged pot."
    In his twenty years' trading, Henly had fostered much goodwill. The Hayward brothers attached some value to his name and until 1855, the qualification "Late R. Henly & Co." was printed or impressed under their own name.
    The two Hayward brothers were strong advocates of new methods and ideas. The same year that they broke away from family ties and started up independently in Southwark, Mr. John Sheringham of Kensington had perfected an invention known as Sheringham's Ventilator, the purpose of which, as the name suggests, was "the introduction of fresh air without a draught."
    The brothers were already engaged in the manufacture of Dr. Arnott's Chimney Valves for "carrying off the heated and impure air." The ventilator was a second step towards better hygiene. For some time, medical opinion had been attacking the appalling conditions not only in home and factory but also in public places and other buildings supposedly devoted to education and enlightenment. An article in The Times calling attention to the evils of defective ventilation stated: "It is known when the atmosphere is in a choleraic condition that the overcrowding of human beings under the same roof, and in the same apartment, is almost invariably followed by an outbreak of disease. A very remarkable instance of this kind occurred at Taunton in the beginning of June, 1849. The terrible rapidity with which the disease developed in the workhouse of that town must still be in the recollection of the public. The girls' schoolroom was a slated shed, 50 feet long, 9 feet 10 inches broad, and 7 feet 9 inches in