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1915 Sweet's Catalogue of Building Construction
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First: 1915 Ad in The Brickbvilder Last: 1918 Article in American Architect Prev: 1915 Ad in The Brickbvilder Next: 1916 Postcard to J. R. Gordon Esq., NYC Navigation
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Keppler Glass Constructions, Inc. Daylighting Constructions 871
KEPPLER GLASS CONSTRUCTIONS, INC.
Pavements, Vaults, Floors, Roofs, Train Sheds, Skylight, Fireproof Windows, Partitions, and Crystal Ceilings

Architects Building, 101 Park Avenue
NEW YORK, N. Y.

Products.
KEPPLER ALL-GLASS-UNDERSURFACE FLOOR-, ROOF-, PAVEMENT-, VAULT-LIGHT, TRAIN SHED and SKYLIGHT CONSTRUCTIONS—unit formation; steel-reinforced cement ribs.
KEPPLER TRANSLUCENT GLASS PARTITIONS—unit construction; steel-reinforced cement cores; both surfaces practically all glass; fireproof.
KEPPLER FIREPROOF WINDOWS—unit construction; steel-reinforced cement cores; both surfaces practically all glass; translucent.
KEPPLER TRANSLUCENT CRYSTAL CEILING CONSTRUCTIONS—unit assembly; electro-glazed.

Services.
Our business is Glass Constructions. But is also making the best possible use of daylight in all parts of Commercial Buildings, Hotels, Apartment Houses and Fine Residences, from roof to basement.
Our experience in the use of Glass Constructions, together with information and co-operation in planning all or part of Installations for admitting and distributing daylight, is freely at your disposal.

Keppler All-Glass-Undersurface Constructions—Vaults, Pavements, Floors, Roofs, Train Sheds and Skylights.
These constructions are composed of three stock parts: Glass units, reinforcing rods, and cement. The units are clear glass; but careful designing for diffusing and reflecting the light makes them translucent instead of transparent.
More Light—These constructions transmit and distribute approximately 40 per cent more light. The top surface, which admits light rays, has a large glass area, so that most of light striking the constructions passes into the glass units. These units widen into a practically all-glass undersurface, and a great deal of this light passes right through to the room below without striking the cement ribs (Fig. 2).
The light which strikes the concaved sides of the units next to ribs is reflected below with very little absorption. This is possible because the sides compose a series of accurately designed ribs, painted white to prevent absorption and increase reflection (Fig. 1).
Better Light—Because of the practically all-glass undersurface and light-reflecting white-painted sides of units, cement ribs are almost invisible from below, and the construction becomes one large source of light, instead of a number of small round or square units. This eliminates heavy shadows from cement ribs and gives an even, well-distributed light to see and work by.
Better Appearance—Top surface is even and lies in the same plane as floor, pavement or roof. The all-glass undersurface gives the advantages and attractive appearance of glass, and the feeling of substantial masonry.
Adaptability—In addition to ordinary uses, such as vaults, pavements and skylights, Keppler All-Glass-Undersurface Constructions are used in buildings where light and appearance are of equal importance, and are used in place of light-shafts in lofts, factories, warehouses and abattoirs, extending through three and four stories, as roof for top story and as floor and ceiling for each succeeding story.
The latter use gives the advantages of a light-shaft without having to sacrifice the space or risk the dangers of a shaft in case of fire. The even top surface and the sustaining power make the construction a regular part of the floor.
Fireproof—This construction is fireproof and meets requirements of building regulations. Reinforcing rods are embedded in cement, where fire cannot reach them—only thick glass and cement are exposed.
Waterproof—It is guaranteed waterproof, and affords no place for water or dirt to collect (Fig. 6).

View of 4-inch Keppler vault light unit · elevation
Elevation
View of 4-inch Keppler vault light unit · section
Section
Fig 1. VIEWS OF 4-INCH KEPPLER VAULT LIGHT UNIT
Detail View of Construction
Fig. 2. DETAIL VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION
A and B light rays show large area available for direct transmission of light. C shows one of many rays transmitted through Keppler Vault Light. Sides of units next to cement ribs are painted white to reflect rays. Very little light is absorbed or shut off.
The glass units are set 112 inch apart to allow for expansion. The effect from below is of an all-glass construction.

Weight and Sizes—Average weight is twenty pounds per square foot. Sizes of units vary from 3 by 3 up to 8 by 8 inches; thickness, 1¾ to 2¾ inches. These constructions are built to sustain any of the usual loads required in commercial buildings, strength being varied by type of units used.

Built to Last—Materials entering into this construction are selected with care, for lasting quality. Glass units are examined with a polariscope to ensure good annealing and absence of interior strains.
One part of best slow-setting Portland cement and two parts of clean, sharp sand are used for the ribs.

872 Daylighting Constructions Keppler Glass Constructions, Inc.
TOP AND BOTTOM VIEW OF VAULT LIGHT UNIT
Fig. 3. TOP AND BOTTOM VIEW OF VAULT LIGHT UNIT

SHOWING GLASS AREAS OF TOP AND BOTTOM
Fig. 4. SHOWING GLASS AREAS OF TOP AND BOTTOM

DETAIL OF INTERMEDIATE I BEAM SUPPORT / SECTION OF PAVEMENT LIGHT AND BULKHEAD SUPPORTED BY STRUCTURAL BEAM
Fig. 5. DETAIL OF INTERMEDIATE I BEAM SUPPORT

Fig. 6. SECTION OF PAVEMENT LIGHT AND BULKHEAD SUPPORTED BY STRUCTURAL BEAM



OPEN COURT INSTALLATION OF 6 IN. SQUARE ROOF LIGHTS WITHOUT UNDERCEILING SASH AS IN CHASE NATIONAL BANK, NEW YORK, N. Y.
Fig. 7. OPEN COURT INSTALLATION OF 6 IN. SQUARE ROOF LIGHTS WITHOUT UNDERCEILING SASH AS IN CHASE NATIONAL BANK, NEW YORK, N. Y.     Kimball & Roosa, Architects
After finishing the work, we keep the construction under wet sand for several days, before it is exposed to the drying action of the air. In this way best results are secured in the cement work.
In addition to properly designed expansion joints, which go clear through the entire depth of the plate, contraction and expansion are also provided for by an elastic light-reflecting cushion around each unit.
No maintenance is required except cleaning, which is easily done because of the even top surface and the all-glass undersurface.
Single units can be replaced easily, if broken, without disturbing or removing the entire panel.
Immediate Delivery—All parts are stock parts and always on hand. No special framework is required. Deliveries can be made immediately.
Installation—We install the constructions or furnish the materials, as desired. Installation is simple, the units being laid out on a falsework and the joints filled with cement and reinforcing rods.

SPECIFICATION FOR KEPPLER ALL-GLASS-UNDERSURFACE CONSTRUCTIONS
Floor-, roof-, vault- and pavement-lights shall be of unit construction with steel-reinforced cement ribs. Top surface shall be even, without any places for water or dirt to collect. The undersurface shall be practically all glass, one twelfth of an inch being allowed between units at the bottom for expansion.
The units shall be of clear glass, made translucent by design to diffuse and distribute light.
The sides of the units shall compose a series of bonding ribs, over which shall be applied an elastic light-reflecting cushion, to prevent shaling and to increase light reflection.
Expansion joints, extending clear through the entire depth of the panels, shall be provided to take up compressional strain and temperature stresses.
No metal parts shall be exposed to fire or rust. The entire construction shall be fireproof and water-proof, and shall be installed and completed in a workmanlike and satisfactory manner, and guaranteed against all defects in materials.

Keppler Glass Partitions, Fireproof and Translucent.
Keppler Glass Partitions are composed of glass units and steel-reinforced cement cores. Units are clear glass made translucent by design, giving advantages of great diffusion and forming a perfect screen—no one can see through (Figs. 8 and 11).
More Light—They transmit light from one room to another, instead of shutting it off as masonry does; and are a source of daylight for rooms without windows and skylights. They make artificial illumination more valuable by transmitting it.
Appearance—Both surfaces are practically all glass. They have the substantial appearance of masonry. The four concave sides of units around cement cores are painted white, making cores almost invisible.
Fireproof and Sound-proof—They have had thorough fire tests in actual contact with flames (Fig. 9).
Fireproof-metal picture mouldings, chair rails, surbases, doors and transoms are used.
Partitions are sound-proof, affording privacy.
Adaptability—They can be furnished in panels and put up and taken down, the same as ordinary partitions.
Because of lighting value, appearance and adaptability, they are available for both permanent and temporary partitions in office buildings, department stores, factories, lofts, and other buildings with interiors removed from windows.

Keppler Glass Constructions, Inc. Daylighting Constructions 873
PARTITIONS TRANSMIT LIGHT FROM ONE ROOM TO ANOTHER FIRE TEST
Fig. 8. Partitions transmit light from one room to another, and are an actual source of light for rooms without windows. They are translucent, sound-proof and fireproof
Fig. 9. Fire Test: Heat raised to 1800 degrees Fahr. in half hour and maintained for next half hour. Construction was then subjected to a force of water from fire hose and stood test intact
KEPPLER GLASS PARTITIONS AND FIREPROOF WINDOWS

Easy to Install—Any bricklayer or tile setter can install these constructions (Fig. 10). We furnish the materials or the complete panels. When desired, we install the constructions.

Immediate Delivery—Glass units, reinforcing rods and cement can be shipped immediately. Panels can also be delivered promptly.

Weight, Sizes and Cost—Weight, ten to fifteen pounds per square foot. Sizes, 6 by 6 and 8 by 8 inches. Cost, $1.20 to $1.50 per square foot in place.

SPECIFICATION FOR KEPPLER GLASS PARTITIONS

Partitions shall be composed of glass units, with steel-reinforced cement cores. Units shall be clear glass, made translucent by design, ensuring absolute privacy. Concave sides of the units next to the cement cores shall be painted white to increase reflection. Both surfaces shall be practically all glass, one twelfth inch being allowed between units for expansion.
The entire construction, including all picture mouldings, chair rails and surbases incorporated in the partitions, shall be fireproof.
Work to be done in a thoroughly satisfactory manner.


DETAIL AND ELEVATION SHOWING CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION OF KEPPLER GLASS PARTITIONS AND WINDOWS
Fig. 10. DETAIL AND
ELEVATION SHOWING
CONSTRUCTION
AND INSTALLATION
OF KEPPLER GLASS
PARTITIONS AND WINDOWS
Keppler Fireproof Translucent Glass Windows.
ELEVATION OF 6-INCH PARTITION AND WINDOW UNIT
Fig. 11. ELEVATION OF
6-INCH PARTITION AND
WINDOW UNIT
These windows are composed of glass units and steel-reinforced cement cores. The units are of clear glass made translucent by careful design, giving the advantage of great diffusion with minimum absorption. Both surfaces are practically all glass, and cement cores are rendered almost invisible by painting the four concave sides of glass units white.

Fireproof—They have been tested up to 1800 degrees Fahr. At this heat they were subjected to a force of water from a fire hose and remained intact (Fig. 9).

They cannot be opened and are, therefore, a logical installation for windows near fire-escapes in factories and lofts, and for warehouses and light-shafts, combining the lighting advantages of glass and the fireproof advantages of a wall.

Note—Any window that can be raised, lowered or opened is a source of danger if located near a fire-escape, a light-shaft or on the fire-exposed sides of a building.
It is for such uses that Keppler Windows are intended. Where there is no danger of fire contact, regular windows or wire-glass windows that can be opened should be used.

Expansion and contraction are provided for by an elastic cushion around each unit and by properly designed expansion joints.

Installation—Any bricklayer or tile setter can construct Keppler Fireproof Windows, or we will install the constructions ourselves.

Weight, Sizes and Cost—Ten to fifteen pounds per square foot. Sizes, 6 by 6 and 8 by 8 inches; thickness, 2 inches. Cost, $1.20 to $1.50 per square foot in place.

874 Daylighting Constructions Keppler Glass Constructions, Inc.
KEPPLER TRANSLUCENT CRYSTAL CEILING
Fig. 12. KEPPLER TRANSLUCENT CRYSTAL CEILING
Made by repetition of small panels composed of glass units ornamental in relief. Keppler Crystal Ceilings can be designed to carry out or harmonize with any architectural style or idea. They are thoroughly substantial in appearance, giving the feeling of masonry rather than glass.
Delivery—Stocks of glass units, reinforcing rods and cement are always on hand for immediate delivery.

SPECIFICATION FOR KEPPLER FIREPROOF WINDOWS

Fireproof windows shown in plans shall be composed of glass units with steel-reinforced cement cores. Both surfaces shall be practically all glass, one twelfth of an inch being allowed between units for expansion. The concave sides of the units shall be painted white to increase light reflection, and an elastic cushion shall be applied over the white paint to provide for expansion and contraction by properly prepared cushions around the four sides of the windows.
The windows shall be stationary, so that they cannot be raised, lowered or opened at any time.
The entire construction shall be fireproof and waterproof, and completed in a workmanlike and satisfactory manner.

Keppler Translucent Crystal Ceilings.
Keppler Crystal Ceilings are constructed of clear glass units ornamented in relief, making them translucent. Units are copper electro-glazed in panels at the factory, and these are installed on iron or concrete frame-work at the building (Figs. 12 and 13).

These ceilings are thoroughly substantial looking and give the impression of masonry rather than glass.

More Light—They transmit an evenly diffused light, and reduce the need of artificial light by day.
DETAIL OF PANEL SHOWING ORNAMENTATION OF UNITS IN RELIEF
Fig. 13. DETAIL OF PANEL SHOWING ORNAMENTATION OF UNITS IN RELIEF
Panel is made of small clear and amber glass units electro-glazed together. Units are ornamented in relief, making them translucent and substantial looking
Decorative and Ornamental—The ceilings are highly decorative. There are one hundred and fifty different units, which can be assembled by us in a multitude of different designs to carry out any architect's desires. Units are of clear glass or golden amber. Special units designed when necessary.

Adaptability—This method of construction is used extensively in Europe, in banks, stores, hotels, libraries, railway stations and fine residences. It is now available in America also.

Strength—A man can walk upon them when cleaning. With large spans, small T and I beams are worked into the design.
Fire Resistance—Numerous tests have proved them as resistant as the best wire-glass.
Weight and Cost—Average weight, nine pounds per square foot. Cost, $1.25 to $2.50 per square foot.

1915 Sweet's Catalogue of Building Construction, p.871 1915 Sweet's Catalogue of Building Construction, p.872 1915 Sweet's Catalogue of Building Construction, p.873 1915 Sweet's Catalogue of Building Construction, p.874
Sweet's Catalogue of Building Construction · 1915