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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
THADDEUS HYATT, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., ASSIGNOR TO
ELIZABETH A. L. HYATT, OF SAME PLACE.

IMPROVEMENT IN ILLUMINATING VENTILATING-STEPS.
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Thaddeus Hyatt
36 of 67

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 145,209, dated December 2, 1873; application filed October 22, 1873.
CASE 30.
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, THADDEUS HYATT, of New York, in the county of New York and in the State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Illuminating Ventilating-Stoops; and do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawing making a part of this specification, in which--
    Figure 1 is a perspective view of the upper side of my illuminating and ventilating-stoop. Fig. 2 is a vertical section of the same upon a line having a right angle to the front of the building, showing the ventilators closed; and Fig. 3 is a like view of the same, showing said ventilators open.
    Letters of like name and kind refer to like parts in each of the figures.
    The design of my invention is to enable the thorough ventilation of basements and extensions of the same beneath the sidewalk, and at the same time permit light to pass freely into the same; to which end it consists, principally, in extending an illuminating-plate, which forms one level or step of a stoop, beneath and in rear of the front edge of the plate forming the next highest step, so as to form a ventilating-chamber, substantially as is hereinafter specified. It consists, further, in partially or wholly inclosing the rear side of said ventilating-chamber by means of a glazed wall or partition, substantially as and for the purpose hereinafter shown. If consists, finally, in the especial construction and arrangement of the parts which form the ventilating-trap, substantially as and for the purpose hereinafter set forth.
    In the annexed drawing, A and A' represent two illuminating glazed plates, which form the stoop of a building-front, and are arranged upon different levels, so as to constitute steps. The sill A'' of the door is also constructed of or from an illuminating-plate of metal, and placed at a higher level than the second plate A', and between said plates and between the later and the lower plate A are placed metal risers B, that are constructed
sufficiently open to permit air to pass freely through the same. The rear side of each plate A and A' extends beneath the forward edge of the next higher plate, is glazed so as to permit light falling upon its upper surface to pass freely downward into the space C beneath, and has its rear edge a extended upward for a short distance, so as to prevent water from passing from the front into said space, such arrangement forming a ventilating-chamber, D. Within the angle formed by the upper side of the plate A and the upward-extended edge a of its rear edge is hinged one edge of a glazed frame, E, which has such size and shape as to cause it to fill, vertically and longitudinally, the space between said plate, the plate A', and the end plates F, when raised to a vertical position, as shown in Fig. 2, and thus prevent the circulation of air to or from the space C through the chamber D; but when said plate is turned forward and downward, as shown in Fig. 3, but little if any obstruction is offered to the free passage of air.
    By so arranging the hinged plates as to prevent them from dropping below a line extending from their hinged edges upward and outward to the forward edge of the plate A' or A'' next above, it will be seen that they effectually prevent the inward passage of rain during a storm, while at the same time they permit air to circulate with sufficient freedom to supply all the requirements of ventilation for the space C.
    The hinged plates may be moved in any desired manner, but I prefer to have them overbalanced upon their outer sides, so as to incline outward by their own weight, and to govern such inclination and raise them, when required, by means of a cord, G, attached to the upper edge of each, and passing inward over a suitable pulley.
    If desired, the plates E may be rigidly fixed in position, but I find it more convenient to have them arranged as shown, so as to permit the inward passage of air to be prevented during very cold weather.
    Dirt lodging within the ventilating-chamber may be easily removed by means of a