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206,332 · Hyatt · "Improvement in the Application of Cements, Clays, Metals and Glass in forming Illuminated or Other Gratings, Vault-Covers, Roofs, &c."· Page 1
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Patents: 102 of 511
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
THADDEUS HYATT, OF NEW YORK, N. Y., ASSIGNOR TO ELIZABETH A. L. HYATT, FOR HERSELF AND AS TRUSTEE FOR BESSIE L. HYATT, THADDEUS P. HYATT, CLOTILDE S. HYATT, JAMES H. L. HYATT, AND ANNIE F. HYATT.

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Thaddeus Hyatt
37 of 67
IMPROVEMENT IN THE APPLICATION OF CEMENTS, CLAYS, METALS AND GLASS IN FORMING ILLUMINATED OR OTHER GRATINGS, VAULT-COVERS, ROOFS, &c.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 206,332, dated July 23, 1878; application filed July 15, 1878.
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, THADDEUS HYATT, of 25 Waverley Place, in the city, county, and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful improvements in the use and application of hydraulic (including Sorel or magnesian) cements and concretes, baked clays, and papier-maché, in combination with metal, and in combination with glass, and combinations of the two, as a building material, and in building constructions made therefrom, and in means, modes, and processes connected therewith, the same in part being applicable to pavements and other walking surfaces, of which improvements and combinations the following is a specification.
    My invention relates to hydraulic (including magnesian) cements, and concretes made therefrom, including substances of the nature of papier-maché or fibrous concretes, applied to building purposes, with reference, primarily, to the construction of surfaces designed to produce illumination, ventilation, ornamentation, security against fire, burglars, condensed moisture, and to make safe walking-surfaces.
    Illumination.-- The "Hyatt light," or illuminating-gratings, known to the country for the last thirty years and more, and invented by me, have been always distinguished for their massiveness and strength, but have been open to objection on three grounds: first, amount of light disproportioned to surface; second, liability to leakage at the borders of the gratings, where joined to the frames; and, third, condensation of moisture; and these three faults all proceed from one and the same sources-- viz., an improper distribution of the metal. The gratings, as described in the original patent, were in the nature of a perforated plate. Now, the difference in principle between the disposition of metal in plate form and metal in beam form will be apparent without illustration to every engineering mind. My present improvement disposes the metal of the grating in beam form. Thus disposed, my new illuminating-gratings become virtually a congeries or assemblage of web and flange beams or blades, exposing but little radiating-surface to produce condensed
moisture, and for the same reason intercepting but a minimum of the light-rays, the metal also, from its blade or beam form, becoming as distinguished for rigidity as the plate form is for flexibility-- a result of this quality of the metal being security against leakage at the joints or bearings, and a capacity for being fastened at those points without bolts or rivets, and to be made water-tight by the one means employed for fastening the gratings to their seats. The plate gratings but rarely exceed seventy inches of glass to the one hundred and forty-four of surface, and more frequently at the present time contain not more than forty inches, whereas my improved or beam gratings have a capacity, when required, of one hundred and ten inches of glass to the one hundred and forty-four inches of surface. The obvious objection to the metal in this form, where the gratings are exposed to concussion, arises from the danger of sudden rupture where the material is ordinary cast-iron. A part of my invention, therefore, consists in making them of cast-steel, malleable iron, and wrought-iron. For distinctiveness, I call this new style of grating the "spider-web grating."
    In order to render apparent the difference between the plate grating and the beam or spider-web grating, I represent by Figure 1 a cross-section of the former, where A is a bull's-eye glass, resting in a seat in the iron, which intercepts some twenty per cent. of its vertical light. B represents the metal bars of the grating.
    Fig. 2 shows a plan view of the plate and the mass of metal at the angles B', where three glasses meet.
    Fig. 3 represents the beam or spider-web grating, in which, it will be observed, all the vertical rays of light that fall upon the glass pass through it without interception, the cement which confines the glass to its position being hydraulic, and which, as employed, is also my invention, the glass being held securely by mere surface or side adhesion, the glasses for this purpose being made deepest at the sides a a, and which also constitutes a