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271,854 · Ingalls · "Illuminating Roofs, &c." · Page 1
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271,854: 1 of 5

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Patents: 143 of 511
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
JOSHUA K. INGALLS, OF GLENORA, NEW YORK.

ILLUMINATING-ROOF, &c.
First: 14,456 · Ingalls · "Vault Cover" · Page 1 Last: 271,854 · Ingalls · "Illuminating Roofs, &c." · Drawing 2 Prev: 261,720 · Ingalls · "Illuminating-Tile" · Page 1 Next: 14,456 · Ingalls · "Vault Cover" · Page 1 Navigation
Joshua K. Ingalls
7 of 7

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 271,854, dated February 6, 1883.
Application filed October 17, 1882. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, JOSHUA K. INGALLS, a resident of Glenora, in the county of Yates and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Illuminating-Roofs and other Surfaces, and in reflecting-lenses therefor, of which the following is a specification.
     This invention relates to vault-lights, roof-lights, area-lights, illuminating-steps, &c., where the lenses or glass plugs employed serve not only to admit, refract, and diffuse the light, but also to reflect it wholly or partially and direct it back into the more remote and darker portions of the building. A lens of this character is shown in my Patent No. 258,232, dated May 23, 1882; and one part of my present invention consists in an improvement in the form of that lens, and in its manufacture.
    Another part of my invention consists in a lens to be set in vertical walls or risers of steps, and to be used with the aforesaid lens; and the third part of my invention consists in an improved form and construction of rear extension-roofs and other roofs, and illuminating plates, surfaces, and coverings, and a novel arrangement of different kinds of lenses therein, whereby a thorough and economical illumination of remote portions of apartments is the better attained.
    In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a side elevation of a reflecting-lens somewhat similar to that shown in and protected by my said Patent No. 258,232, and a cross-section of a portion of the plate in which it is set. Fig. 2 is a rear elevation of the lens detached. Fig. 3 is a vertical mid-section of the mold in which this lens is formed. Fig. 4 is a side elevation of a lens similar to that shown in Fig. 1, but designed to direct the light at a different angle. Fig. 5 is a rear elevation thereof. Fig. 6 is a side elevation of a lens set in a vertical plate, as the riser of a step, showing a portion of the plate in section. Fig. 7 is a rear or inside elevation of the lens and plate. Fig. 8 is a front or outside view of the same. Fig. 9 is a longitudinal mid-section of the lens. Fig. 10 is a diagonal or oblique elevation of the lens, looking in the direction of the arrow 10 in Fig. 9. Fig. 11 is a view corresponding to
Fig. 6, and showing a modified form of lens designed to direct the light at a different angle. Fig. 12 is a rear or inside view of this lens and a portion of its plate, and Fig. 13 is section thereof corresponding to Fig. 9. Fig. 14 is a section of the rear portion of the basement or the lower portion of a store or other building, showing the curved extension-roof. Fig. 15 is a similar section of the front of a basement. Fig. 16 is a view similar to Fig. 14, but more in detail, showing the setting of the lenses. Fig. 17 shows the arrangement of the lenses in an inclined or pitched roof. Fig. 18 shows a fragment of a roof detached and enlarged to show the jagged or step-like construction.
    Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, A is the lens, and B the plate in which it is set. The lens is substantially a cylindrical ungula in form, its plane oblique surface a forming the reflecting-surface of the lens. This lens differs from that shown in my said Patent No.258,232 only in that the reflecting-surface is straight or plane instead of curved, and that it extends up into the socket in which the lens is set, instead of terminating below the socket. This upward extension of this surface causes it to gather and reflect to the desired portion of the apartment a greater quantity of light. The slight nibs or projections b b bear against the socket, as described in my said patent, and one of them, as shown in Fig. 2, extends over a portion of the reflecting-surface. Fig. 3 shows the mold in which this lens is formed. Heretofore, so far as I am aware, lenses of this general character have been made in a mold with the same side up as that shown in Fig. 1, the plunger entering the mold and shaping or forming its top surface. I find that lenses made in this way contract unequally in cooling, owing to their being chilled by the metal of the mold, and the reflecting-surface a, which by this method is in contact with the mold, comes out so rough and dull that a considerable portion of the light which should be reflected is lost, necessitating the smoothing of the lens by "fire-polish" to render it effective. To avoid these difficulties I employ a mold like that shown in Fig. 3, preferably open and without a plunger, and simply pour the molten glass into the mold until it is filled.