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285,358 · Hyatt · "Vault-Light Roof and Sidewalk for Basements and Rear Extensions of Buildings" · Page 1
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Patents: 155 of 511
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
THADDEUS HYATT, OF NEW YORK, N.Y.

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Thaddeus Hyatt
52 of 67
VAULT-LIGHT ROOF AND SIDEWALK FOR BASEMENTS AND REAR EXTENSIONS OF BUILDINGS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 285,358, dated September 18, 1883.
Application filed August 25, 1883. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, THADDEUS HYATT, a citizen of the United States, residing at New York city, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Vault-Light Roofs and Sidewalks for Basements and Rear Extensions of Buildings, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings, making part of this specification.
    My invention has reference to illuminating the interiors of basements from the sidewalk by the front extension of the basement, and the interiors of the ground-floor from the roof over the extension of the same at the rear of the building, and relates to the tiles employed for such purposes that are known, respectively, in the market by the name of "knob-tiles" and "concrete tiles" or "lights," the two belonging to the class called "safe-walking-surface tiles," the knobs of the one and the concrete of the other forming this safe foot-surface, the knobs also protecting the glasses, and the concrete having, likewise, the further quality of making roofs not liable to sweat, for which reason they are employed for the construction of roofs not intended to be commonly walked over, as well as for those that are.
    The term "knob-tiles" is employed to mean gratings set with convex glasses or lenses, the iron knobs standing between and above them to protect them against breakage, and at the same time forming a foot-surface not liable to become polished and slippery by wear. The term "concrete lights" is employed to mean gratings set with flat-faced glasses where the metal between them is concealed beneath a facing or filling of wood, asphalt, concrete, brick, stone, or other material that is safe to be walked on. The function common to both is the safe foot-surface, with respect to which the one is the equivalent of the other, and both are of the same class. In the knob-tile the comfort of the foot-surface is subordinated to light, the knobs being made small in order to increase the number of glasses to the foot superficial of iron grating. In the concrete tile the comfort of the foot-surface is paramount, light being subordinated to foot-surface; but,
whether made of knob or concrete tiles, the area-lights in common use have reference chiefly to illuminating the parts of the basement in shadow on account of their remoteness from the front. My improvements therefore have reference not to the absolute amount of light passing through the glasses of the grating, but to the illumination afforded by them to the dark parts of the basement or apartment.
    The object of my invention then, having reference to illuminating the dark portions of the apartments (whether basement or ground-floor) remote from the source of light, is as follows-- viz., with respect to the knob-tile, to enlarge the knobs, and by so doing create a comfortable foot-surface for those who are compelled to walk over them, and maintain at the same time, with reference to the dark parts of the basement aforesaid, an illumination equal to that at present obtained from tiles made with less knob and more glass; or, where an increase of the light is of more importance than an increase of the diameter of the knob, the object of my improvement then, in such case, is to practically increase the illuminating-power of the knob-tile when made, as at present,with small knobs; and with respect to the concrete tile, the object of my invention is, without diminution of its safe comfortable foot-surface, to give to such lights a power of illumination, with respect to the dark parts of the apartments aforesaid, equivalent to what would be obtained by an increase of its glass surface at the expense of its safe foot-surface. My invention, to-effect the objects aforesaid, consists in the combination of daylight-reflectors (using the word technically) or reflecting-surfaces (using the word broadly) with knob and concrete tiles or illuminating safe foot-surfaces.
    Figure 1 represents a portion of knob-tile, full size, of the kind commonly manufactured. Fig. 2 represents a portion of knob-tile, full size, of the improved kind, made with enlarged knobs. Fig. 3 represents in cross-section an improved tile and daylight-reflector combined, scale half-size. Fig. 4 represents in cross-section a concrete tile and daylight-reflector combined, scale half-size. A represents the metal grating; B, glasses;