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286,012 · Hyatt · "Illuminating Vault-Cover or Grating-Tile, &c." · Page 1
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286,012: 1 of 6

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Patents: 157 of 511
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
THADDEUS HYATT, OF NEW YORK, N.Y.

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Thaddeus Hyatt
54 of 67
ILLUMINATING VAULT-COVER OR GRATING-TILE, &c.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 286,012, dated October 2, 1883.
Application filed September 3, 1883. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, THADDEUS HYATT, a citizen of the United States, residing at the city of New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Illuminating Vault-Covers or Grating-Tiles and Surfaces Made of them, of which the following is a description, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings, making part of this specification.
    The grating-tiles set with glass that compose the illuminating-surfaces in universal use in the patent-light industry of the country are made of cast-iron, and where the construction is an elevator-door the weight of the doors and their liability to break is a serious objection to their use, while in constructing illuminating top roofs and principal-story rear-extension roofs the great weight of the cast-iron is also objectionable. The illuminating-roofs made by me of sheet metal to avoid the weight of cast-iron produced condensed moisture in winter on the under side of the roof, that required a lining of non-conducting material on the under side or a layer of such material on the weather side.
    The object of my present invention is to substitute wood for metal, as being lighter, cheaper, safe for being walked over, and better as a non-conducting material when set with glass for roof-making and coal-hole plates or vault-covers and area-coverings, whether as simple platforms or in the form of steps made of risers and treads; but wood in its natural state, however well seasoned, will not answer the purpose.
    My invention therefore consists, in the employment of wood that has been previously treated by heat or chemicals and made proof against shrinkage in dry weather or exposure to heat, and against swelling in wet weather or when exposed to moisture or dampness of any kind. The wood selected by me, of preference, as the material out of which to make wood grating-tiles for combination with glass is one of several kinds manufactured and in the market. The kind selected by me is termed "vulcanized wood," and is prepared by a process patented to Louis S. Robbins by Patent No. 165,758, dated July 20, 1875; but I propose
to make use of natural wood of any kind that may be suitable to be converted into wood gratings when the wood has been rendered proof against decay and change by the agency of heat or chemicals or preserving materials of any kind; and I hereby enumerate such as at present are considered to be the reliable ones, as set forth in a volume entitled "A Treatise on Dry Rot in Timber, by Thomas Allen Britton, London, 1875." The different methods proposed for seasoning timber, as given at page 168 of Britton' s work, are as follows, viz: "Vacuum and pressure processes generally"-- Bréant's, Bethell's, Payne's, Perin's, Tissier's; "Vacuum by condensation of steam""-- Tissier's, Bréant, Payne, Renard Perin, 1848; Brochard and Watteau, 1847; "Separate condenser"-- Tissier; "Employ sulphate of copper in closed vessels"-- Bethell's patent, July 11, 1838; Tissier, October 22, 1844; Molin's paper, 1853; Payne's pamphlet; Légé and Fleury's pamphlet; "Current of steam"-- Moll's patent, January 19, 1835; Tissier's patent, October 22, 1844; Payne's patent, November 14, 1846; Meyer d'Uslan, January 2, 1851; Payne's pamphlet; "Hot solution"-- Tissier's patent, October 22, 1844; Knab's patent, September 8, 1846." (to which I will add Shaw's American Patent 28,309, dated May 15, 1860.) The ingredients for preserving timber enumerated in Britton's work are as follows, viz: "Acid sulphuric, vitriolic, and of tar; carbonate of potash, soda, barytes; sulphate of copper, iron, zinc, lime, magnesia, barytes, alumina, soda; salt, neutral; salt selenites; oil, vegetable, animal, mineral; muriate of soda, marcosites, mundic; marcosites, barytes; nitrate of potash; animal glue; animal wax; quicklime; resins of different kinds; sublimate, corrosive; peat, moss. The most successful patentees have been Bethell and Burnett in England and Boncherie in France. The most successful patents may be placed in three classes, and we give the key-note of their success: First, one material and one application: creosote, petroleum; second, two materials and one application: chloride of zinc and water, sulphate of copper and water, corrosive sublimate and water; third, two materials and two applications: sulphate of iron and water, afterward sulphate of lime and water.