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Patents: 164 of 511
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
JACOB JACOBS, OF NEW YORK, N.Y.

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Jacob Jacobs
7 of 57
ILLUMINATING-TILE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 290,584, dated December 18, 1883.
Application filed August 24, 1882. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, JACOB JACOBS, of New York, in the county of New York, and in the State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Illuminating-Tiles; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, making a part of this specification, in which--
    Figure 1 is a perspective view of the upper side of one form of my tile. Fig. 2 is a like view of the lower side of the same. Figs. 3 and 4 are perspective views from opposite sides of one of my improved lens detached from its tile, and Fig. 5 is a cross-section of a tile through the centers of a row of lenses.
    Letters of like name and kind refer to like parts in each of the figures.
    The design of my invention is to increase the efficiency and usefulness of illuminating-tiles; and to this end it consists in the construction of the tile, whereby great strength combined with a secure foothold is secured, and in the form of the lens whereby its light transmitting and refracting powers are increased, and its surface below the tile is prevented from becoming obscured by dirt, substantially as and for the purpose hereinafter specified.
    In the annexed drawings, A represents a metal tile which has any desired form in plan view, and is provided with light-openings that are each inclosed by means of a curb, a, that has a height corresponding to the height of the rim a', which is provided at the edge of said tile. Within each opening is placed a glass lens, B, the body of which has the form of a plain disk with a slightly less diameter at its upper end than at its lower end. The bottom of said body rests upon an annular shoulder at the bottom of the curb a, and between its periphery and the inner side of said curb the space is filled with any suitable cement in the usual way. From the lower side at the center of the disk of lens B a pendant, b, projects downward, and upon one side has a concave face curved throughout its extent from top to bottom. The curvature is such that starting at the top at a considerable angle to a perpendicular line through the lens the surface of the pendant curves toward such perpendicular line until it becomes tangential thereto, and
then curves slightly and gradually away therefrom to the lower end. The point of tangency of the curve and line is about two-thirds the distance down to the end of the pendant. Upon the opposite face of said pendant is a semi-spherical boss, b', forming a convex lens, whose center or axis is opposite the point of tangency referred to above. The surface of the pendant between the top thereof and the upper edge of the lens b' is curved inward, or concaved, as shown best in Fig. 5. The extreme lower end of the pendant is made convex. The parallel rays of light passing straight downward through the disk and pendant are scattered by this lower end, so as to illuminate considerable space. Those of the rays which strike the inner surface of the concaved side at or near a perpendicular line thereto at the point of contact pass through and are caused to diverge in radiant lines. Most of those that do not strike the surface so, but at an angle thereto, are reflected over to the lens b', according to the well-known principles of optics. These rays passing out through the lens are caused to converge thereby, cross each other, and diverge again to light up as large an extent of space as possible. A few rays which strike this surface at such an angle that when reflected they pass below the lens b' will strike and pass out through the convex end of the pendant. Whatever rays strike the short concave portion between the convex lens and the disk at such an angle that they cannot pass through it are reflected over to the long concave surface of the pendant, and either pass through that or are reflected back to the lens b', to be scattered thereby, as set forth above. All the rays except the small portion striking upon the lower end of the pendant will pass out through the concave surfaces of the pendant or the lens b', and consequently the greater part of the light entering the disk of the lens B will be thoroughly disseminated and spread out, so as to act most advantageously in illuminating as much space as possible.
    If desired, the pendants may have such relative lengths as to enable those farthest from the space to be illuminated to refract the rays of light below those in front, as shown by dotted lines of Fig. 5.
    In order that the surface of the pendant b