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290,886 · Jacobs · "Concrete Floor, Roof, &c." · Page 1
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Patents: 165 of 511
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
THADDEUS HYATT, OF NEW YORK, N.Y.

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Thaddeus Hyatt
61 of 67
CONCRETE FLOOR, ROOF, &c.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 290,886, dated December 25, 1883.
Application filed December 3, 1883. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, THADDEUS HYATT, a citizen of the United States, residing at the city of New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful improvements in Concrete Roofs, Floors, Pavements, and Area-Coverings, of which the following is a description, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings, making part of this specification.
    My invention relates to fire-proof concrete roofs, floors, and roof-pavements, including area-coverings.
    The object of my invention is to lessen cost of construction and make the structure capable of admitting light without thereby exposing the premises to the spread of flames in case of fire; and it consists of; first, a self-supporting concrete composite beam-arch; second, a self- supporting concrete composite beam-arch formed with openings, after the manner of an illuminating-grating, to admit light; third, a self-supporting concrete composite beam-arch formed with openings, after the manner of an illuminating-grating, in combination with glass to shut out the weather and admit light; fourth, a concrete arch formed with openings, after the manner of an illuminating-grating, to admit light; fifth, a concrete arch formed with openings, after the manner of an illuminating-grating, in combination with glass to shut out the weather and admit light.
    Figure 1 is a perspective view representing a self-supporting concrete composite beam-arch, a a indicating the beam portions outside of, and a' a' a' indicating the arch portion between the broken lines b b. Fig. 2 represents the same construction, but formed with openings, after the manner of an illuminating-grating, and set with glasses to give light. Fig. 3 represents a roof, floor, pavement, or construction made of self-supporting concrete composite beam-arches. Fig. 4 represents a roof, floor, pavement, or construction made of self-supporting concrete composite beam-arches formed with openings, after the manner of an illuminating-grating, to admit light. Fig. 5 represents an illuminating concrete arch designed for being carried upon outside
supports or beams. Fig. 6 represents a roof, floor, pavement, or construction made of illuminating concrete arches carried upon supports or beams.
    A indicates concrete. B indicates tie metals. B' indicates web metals. B² indicates supports or beams. C indicates tie-rods. D indicates light-holes. B indicates glasses. c indicates nuts on tie-rods. d indicates cross-wires of tie metals. i indicates the under or flaring portion of the light-holes.
    Figs. 1 to 4 illustrate my invention in order to save the cost of iron beams, the invention consisting in the introduction of tie-metal strength into concrete-arches construction in manner as I have heretofore employed it in the construction of solid concrete floors.
    Where web metal B' is shown, it is merely to illustrate the method of its employment. It would not be employed on one side of the arch only, but used for all the arches and in the beam portions of all. The purpose of web metals is to add rigidity where the beam-span is great between the walls or supports.
    The effect of tie metals placed in the haunches of the arches is to convert that portion of the structure lying outside the broken line b b, and marked a a, into a beam, the compressive portion of which is the concrete and the tensile portion of which is the tie metal; but it may be reasonably supposed that the curved portions lying within and between the broken lines b b also enter into compressive resistance to the load when the beam is under strain.
    The rule for calculating the size and strength of the tie metals is the same as for web and flange beams, examples in illustration of which may be found in my work entitled "An Account of Some Experiments with Portland Cement Concrete Combined with Iron as a Building Material," copies of which work are to be found in the Patent Office library and in other libraries, both in the United States and in England.
    By the ordinary mode of building large openings or well-holes are cut through roof or floor to admit light, the closures of which are not fire-proof; such openings materially aiding the spread of flames in case the building takes fire. Where such roof or floor is constructed of concrete arches it is evident that if the same