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292,559 · Hyatt · "Concrete and Concreted Pavement and Roof-Pavement, and Substructure for the Same" · Page 1
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Patents: 166 of 511
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
THADDEUS HYATT, OF NEW YORK, N.Y.

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Thaddeus Hyatt
62 of 67
CONCRETE AND CONCRETED PAVEMENT AND ROOF-PAVEMENT, AND SUBSTRUCTURE FOR THE SAME.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 292,559, dated January 29, 1884.
Application filed December 27, 1883. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, THADDEUS HYATT, a citizen of the United States, residing at New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Concrete and Concreted Pavements and Roof-Pavements and Substructures for the Same, of which the following is a description, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings, making part of this specification.
    My invention relates to the construction of roof-pavements made of iron beams and metal plates, and is an improvement upon the original construction laid down by me in the year 1852. My 1852 construction was a combination of beams and plates, the plates being laid upon the bottom flanges of the beams. Upon these plates, which were cast with strengthening-blades upon their top sides, a heavy layer of concrete made of mortar and brick-bats, with smaller pieces, was laid. Upon this bed a layer of sand, in the usual way of making pavements, was spread, and then stone flagging was bedded upon it. The second roof-pavement laid by me was made as follows: Plates of iron about twelve feet long and three feet wide, cast with blades or webs about eight inches high and about ten inches apart, were laid on the tops of iron beams the plates crossing the beams and running parallel with the curb. The spaces between the blades were filled with concrete and sand, and narrow flag-stones laid between the webs, the top edges of the blades being seen upon the surface of the construction, and with the flags forming the trottoir or footway. At the end of thirty years I resume my work with the object of doing what no one in the meantime has done-- viz., first, to make a metallic roof-pavement, which, while securing the greatest amount of benefit to the owner of the property employing it, shall at the same time give to the public who are compelled to walk over it absolute security against slipping on account of the wear of its surface; second, to make a metallic roof-pavement which, while securing the greatest amount of benefit to the owner of the property employing it, shall at the same time prevent fruit-skins and such like slippery débris
thrown upon it from causing injury to the public; third, to make a metallic roof-pavement which, while securing the greatest amount of benefit to the owner of the property employing it, shall at the same time secure for the public a footway comparatively dry in the wettest of rainy weather; fourth, to make a metallic roof-pavement which, while securing the greatest benefit to the public, as above enumerated, shall at the same time secure to the property owner employing it a construction at the least cost; free from deterioration by rust; free from dripping condensed moisture; free from transmitting rumbling sounds; not liable to leak, either from original bad joints or subsequent ones, owing to alternate expansions and contractions; occupying the least amount of head-room, and possessed of sufficient vis inertiæ to safely and permanently resist impact and concussions.
    The features of my invention set forth as above relate, first, to the interests of the public, and relate, secondly, to the interests of owners of property.
    Under the first head, or public interests, my invention consists in covering over the iron plates and supporting-beams with material not liable in itself to become slippery by wear, and which at the same time conceals the metal, so that it cannot become dangerous and slippery by wear; but this was done by my 1852 construction, and in the succeeding one sufficiently so as to be in this respect substantially the same; but the covering material in those constructions, being ordinary flagging bedded in sand and laid substantially in the ordinary manner of flagging sidewalks, used up, as a consequence of the method, a considerable amount of head-room-that is to say, owing to the thickness of the sidewalk (from sixteen to twenty inches) the height of the room below it was less between floor and ceiling by as many inches as the sidewalk was unnecessarily thick. By my present invention I am able to make a better and handsomer sidewalk inside of ten inches thickness, my improvement consisting in combining hydraulic cement or concrete with the iron plates when in plastic condition, first, to obtain a safe foot-surface for the public; second, to protect the