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315,412 · Hyatt · "Illuminating Tiling and Grating for Covering Vaults, Roofs, &c." · Page 1
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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
THADDEUS HYATT, OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK.

ILLUMINATING TILING AND GRATING FOR COVERING VAULTS, ROOFS, &c.
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Thaddeus Hyatt
63 of 67

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 315,412, dated April 7, 1885.
Application filed March 7, 1885. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, THADDEUS HYATT, a citizen of the United States, residing at Brooklyn, in the county of Kings and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Illuminating Tilings and Gratings for Covering Vaults, Roofs, Pavements, and other Surfaces, of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the accompanying drawings.
    Heretofore illuminating tiles or gratings have been always made to order in special sizes and shapes to suit the particular work in hand, according to the plans of architects, in each particular structure. Usually the opening to be covered by the illuminating-tiling is divided into large panels or sectional spaces, each one of which is closed by a tile made of a single casting, in order to secure the greatest amount of light, which would be lost if the panel-spaces were fitted with a number of small tiles, each made with the usual surrounding dead-work, borders, or margins.
    Now, the great object of my present invention is to enable the manufacture of illuminating-tiling to be greatly cheapened, facilitated, and improved in such a way that it can be manufactured in large quantities in joinable sections or fractions of definite sizes and forms, which may be kept in stock and sold as regular articles of trade or manufacture, suitable for all kinds of architectural plans or structures, and which fractional pieces can be readily joined together in the panel-spaces of the structural frame-work without loss of light, and without requiring special castings or formations, as heretofore. Tiling made in this way will be obviously much cheaper and more convenient, and more perfect, and admit of wider and more general use, for when made in such small fractional and joinable sections the form of the tiling can be made much more accurate on account of reduction of warpage, and reduction of failures in casting; and when so made will be snore portable, and can be much more easily and perfectly laid, thereby effecting a great and most desirable improvement in the art.
    According to my present invention, therefore, I make illuminating-tiling in fractional sections or parts without dead-work borders on their juncture sides or edges, so that said
fractions can be junctured directly together in the panel-spaces, to form complete illuminating panel-tiles without loss of light, and in a manner more easy and perfect than would be the case with the single or one casting panel-ties. In order to produce the best effect, I arrange the light-holes in these fractional sections on the honey-comb principle, or in groups 6o of oblique-angled triangles, and I also arrange the light-holes in lines running crosswise to the panel or parallel with the junction sides of the fractional pieces, instead of longitudinally of the complete tile or panel, as has been usual. I also prefer to construct these fractional gratings of iron or other suitable material overlaid or faced with concrete or hydraulic cement, and in laying and securing the fractions in place I fit them into the panel-spaces with their junction sides abutting or approaching, and I then fill the joint-seams between the fractious and the construction-seams between the panel-tiles and the rafters or tile-supports of the panel-frame with cement-- preferably hydraulic cement-- which, uniting with the cement edges of the fractious and with the iron of the supporting or foundation frame, joins the fractions in a homogeneous manner, and at the same time binds the whole series of fractional gratings to and within the paneled frame-work in an exceedingly simple and inexpensive manner, without the necessity of bolting or mechanical fastenings, as heretofore employed, and at the same time produces the appearance of illuminating work made of the one-casting panel-tiles.
    My invention therefore consists in the several features above outlined, as hereinafter fully set forth.
    In specifying my invention I shall first refer to and describe the common system of tiling, in order that my present improvement may be better understood and appreciated and distinguished therefrom.
    In the annexed drawings, Figures 1 to 8 illustrate the old or prevailing system previous to my present invention. Fig. 1 is a plan view indicating the structural opening or space to be covered or tiled. Fig. 2 is a similar view with the opening divided by cross bars or rafters into panel-spaces. Fig. 3 represents a small illuminating-tile made in the ordinary manner with a dead-work border or