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370,625 · Jackson · "Area, Floor, Roof or Sidewalk Construction" · Page 1
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Patents: 205 of 511

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Peter H. Jackson
10 of 14

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 370,625, dated September 27, 1887.
Application filed December 24, 1885. Serial No. 186,652. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, PETER H. JACKSON, of the city and county of San Francisco, State of California, have invented an Improvement in Area, Floor, Roof, and Sidewalk Constructions; and I hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the same.
    My invention relates to certain improvements in area, floor, roof, and sidewalk construction; and it consists of a surface of artificial stone, concrete, or like material, with or without glass set therein, with a peculiar form for strength of corrugated metal plates at the bottom to be of any thickness; also an improved method for sustaining the parts, all of which will be more fully explained by reference to the following drawings.
    Figure 1 is a perspective view of my area, floor, roof, or sidewalk covering, with glass in for illumination. Fig. 2 is a cross-section of of Fig. 1 transversely to the corrugations. Fig. 3 is a plan view of a sidewalk and area covering with glass in, or it may be partly with glass and the remainder without. This shows its application to the front of a building. Fig. 4 is a section through v s of Fig. 3. Fig. 5 is a section through t u of Fig. 3. Fig. 6 is a section through x y of Fig. 3. Fig. 7 is a section through the extreme left of plan view, Fig. 3, with the inner end resting on a beam-riser. Figs. 8 and 9 represent sections of a curved roof.
    In my present construction I employ corrugated metal plates of any thickness, with the grooves of a dovetailed or reversed wedge form-- that is, they are wider across the bottom of the groove at b c than at the top at c d. (See Fig. 2.) This form of groove is a retaining channel for the artificial-stone or concrete filling, solidly holding it within the folds of the metal, thereby uniting the iron bottom to the top surface and largely increasing the strength of the construction as compared to wedge shaped grooves in the corrugated metal, which have no holding power when the adhesiveness of the filling to the metal has been destroyed by severe transverse strains. The tendency in all cases of these constructions is for the metal plate at the bottom to break away in a downward direction when employed in sustaining heavy loads on the top; but when the grooves
are in the form of reverse wedges the adhesiveness of the filling to the metal with the holding power of the metal on account of its form act in concert to hold the bottom to the top. The increased width across the bottom of the reversed wedge-shaped groove, compared to the wedge shaped groove which is widest at the top, increases its strength to resist tensile strain. The bottoms being the place of the greatest severity, the wide bottoms may be compared to the bottom flange of a metal beam in its power to resist such strains.
    In this construction, as in that patented by me on March 31, 1885, No. 314,677, the grooves in the corrugated metal plates form the bottom surface and resist the tensile strain. The grooves shown in that patent are of wedge form-- widest at the top; but in these, metal plates resist the tensile strain, which is greatest at the extreme bottom, and the artificial stone or concrete at the top resists the compressive force. The corrugated metal bottom forms the roof to the chamber vault, basement, or excavation beneath, resting on end bearings or beams, and has to resist the tensile strain, while the top of the artificial stone or concrete forms a pavement and has to resist the compressive force. This improved construction forms a strong durable combination of roof and pavement or floor at less cost than others. These corrugated metal plates a are formed of any thickness, and when necessary to illuminate the chamber below, of which this forms a roof or covering, thick glass or lenses f are fixed in the top part of a.
    Above the corrugated metal plates a and around the glasses f, I fill Portland or other hydraulic cement, concrete, artificial stone, or other like plastic material, which enters the depressed part in the reversed-wedge retaining-channels i, (shown in Fig. 2,) and fills up to the surface and is smoothed off, which hardens in time and becomes solid and strong and suitable for bearing heavy loads or traveling over.
    In connection with that part of the construction described I employ the following as a frame-work for its support: Metallic beams h h', consisting of deep vertical ribs having horizontal projecting ledges or shoulders on the top of the rib, or on both top and bottom, as shown in Figs. 4, 5, and 6. At the end of