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437,347 · Peirce · "Tile for Pavements and Vault-Lights" · Page 1
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Patents: 238 of 511

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 437,347, dated September 30, 1890.
Application filed April 3, 1890. Serial No. 346,459. (No specimens.)
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, JAMES STANWOOD PEIRCE, a citizen of the United States, residing at Portsmouth, in the county of Rockingham and State of New Hampshire, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Tiles for Pavements and Vault-Lights; and I do declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to the letters of reference marked thereon, which form a part of this specification.
    My invention relates to footways or pavements, and has for its object to form a pavement of a composite tile made of a composition that hardens more the longer it is exposed, which will not sweat, and which will also serve to securely hold in place a glass light set in the tile, whereby is formed not only a strong and very durable footway, but also one which will shed a flood of light into the vault below, all as hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming a part hereof, in which--
    Figure 1 is a perspective showing my invention as in practical use, the same, being applied as a footway or pavement over a vault in front of a building. Fig. 2 is a detail showing a section of the pavement on line x x of Fig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrow. Fig. 3 is a perspective of a single tile before the glass light is applied. Fig. 4 is a perspective showing how the tiles may be beveled on edges.
    In carrying out my invention I first form a tile composed of two parts each of cement, silicious sand, gravel or its equivalent, broken stone or rock, and calcined lime, one part of alum, and one part of silicate of soda or silicate of potash, the whole being thoroughly mixed before adding water. This composition is placed in a mold of the desired configuration and having a core preferably in its middle and of tapering wedge shape in cross-section, so as to form a wedge-shaped cavity in the tile, the walls of which flare upwardly, so that the lower portion thereof will form a seat for a glass light to be set therein. After
the composition has been thoroughly tamped and the tile A removed from the table and mold, it appears as shown in Fig. 3. The next step is to place the glass light C in the cavity B and secure it therein by any suitable means. To do that I prefer to use a portion of the composition composing the tile, as it affords a strong cement for the purpose and makes a hard durable surface like the other part of the face of the tile. By making the walls of the recess that receives the glass light tapering or flaring upwardly a firm seat for the glass is afforded, and any pressure or weight upon the glass light would tend only to press it more tightly to its seat.
    By forming the tile itself of the composition described sweating of the tile is effectually prevented, whereby dampness in the vault below is avoided and the glass lights kept dry and free from being obscured by formation of moisture, and a clear bright light in the vault is thus maintained.
    The tiles thus formed are set upon rafters or metal beams E, extending from the walls of the building to the outer wall of the vault, the outer ends of the beams resting in recesses D, formed in the outer wall, so as to bring the top edge or face of the beam substantially flush with the top face of the outer wall, so as to allow the under face of the tiles to rest upon the top of the beams and the outer wall and flush with the same, thus affording a strong and firm base for the tiles and making a close joint, which will exclude dampness and moisture. The beams are placed close enough together to permit a portion of every tile to rest thereon and to meet the edge of the tile projecting beyond the edge of the adjoining beam, thus affording a firm base for each tile and allowing the edges to meet between the beams in such a way that the space between the beams is spanned by the tiles, a portion of each of which rests upon a solid foundation, thus forming a tile pavement and also a roof to the vault having practically a solid base throughout its whole area. For illustration, as shown in the drawings, each beam will have resting upon it the central portion of a series of tiles, whose ends will project on opposite sides of the beam to meet the edges of the corresponding tiles likewise projecting from the adjoining beam, as shown in the right