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Patents: 242 of 511
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
PETER H. JACKSON, OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA.

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Peter H. Jackson
14 of 14
CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 449,323, dated March 31, 1891.
Application filed December 28, 1890. Serial No. 375,633. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, PETER H. JACKSON, a citizen of the United States, residing in the city and county of San Francisco, State of California, have invented an Improvement in the Construction of Buildings; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the same.
    My invention relates to certain improvements in the construction of buildings; and it consists in a combination and arrangement of parts, as will be hereinafter more fully described and claimed.
    Referring to the accompanying drawings for a more complete explanation of my invention, Figure 1 is a transverse section of the sidewalk, beam, riser, and filling-piece. Fig. 2 is a front view.
    In a former invention, patented by me July 22, 1884, No. 302,338, I have shown a riser-beam extending along the front of the elevated area and forming a step and support for the sidewalk and illuminating-surfaces, and in connection therewith a beam-support and intermediate brackets, by which the two are united. In my present invention the inner end of the sidewalk or illuminating-surface is sustained directly, or nearly so, in line with the greatest strength of the supporting-beam, and the tendency to a side and twisting strain which was developed in the former construction is avoided.
    As illustrated in the accompanying drawings, A represents the sidewalk or illuminating-surface, and B is a beam-support of any suitable or desired length, having the bottom flange C, upon which the inner and adjacent edge of the illuminating-surface of the sidewalk is supported. This construction is usually employed for long spans. Between the flange of the beam and this edge of the sidewalk is the intermediate filling-piece D, which is of such shape as to accommodate the grade of the sidewalk, the lower edge of this filling-piece resting upon the flange and the upper edge making a sufficient angle with the lower edge to fit the grade at which the sidewalk is required to stand at any particular point. The door-sill or surface E over the area is supported upon the top of the beam, and extending out to the front forms a nosing or finish F. Between this and the sidewalk or illuminating-surface
the "riser" G, as it is called, is fitted, and as no portion of the weight is supported by this riser it will be manifest that it may be made in sections of any suitable length, and by thus making it in sections there will be no difficulty arising from the warping or bending of the riser when it is cooling from a molten state, which is a serious difficulty when the riser-beam is made in considerable lengths. By extending the inner edge of the sidewalk so as to abut against the beam-rib it will be manifest that the weight will be brought upon the lower flange almost directly in line with the greatest vertical strength of the beam and that little or no tendency will be developed to tilt the beam or to force it to one side in the line of its least strength. In order to prevent even the slightest movement of this sort, I employ thrust-pieces H, which are fitted between the bottom of the beam and the joists or timbers I at the front of the building. By perforating the riser with openings J, as shown, and making corresponding holes or openings K through the beam near the center, or what is known as the "neutral axis," I provide a sufficient means for ventilating the space beneath the sidewalk, and at the same time prevent water or dust from readily passing through by placing the openings out of line with each other. By this construction it will be seen that the sidewalk or illuminating-surface is supported upon the lower flange of the beam, the principal depth of the beam extending above this point, and as there is very little of the beam projecting below it will not cut off the light and prevent its entering the space beneath and to the rear. This construction is simpler and more economical than any heretofore employed.
    Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is--
    1. In a building, the beam extending parallel with the front, forming an offset between the cover of the area-way and the sidewalk, with a flange at the bottom, the illuminating-tiles or sidewalk supported directly upon the outer bottom flange of said beam, and the inclined or tapering filling-piece interposed between the sidewalk and the beam-flange, substantially as herein described.