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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
OSWALD E. WINGER, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOR TO
RALPH D. SMALL, OF SAME PLACE.

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Oswald E. Winger
1 of 3
WINDOW PANE OR LIGHT.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letter Patent No. 607,792, dated July 19, 1898.
Application filed October 15, 1897. Serial No. 655,341. (No model.)
To all whom it may concern:
    Be it known that I, OSWALD E. WINGER, a citizen of the United States, residing at Chicago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Window Panes or Lights, of which the following is a full, clear, concise, and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification.
    My invention relates to a window pane or light, my object being to provide an improved construction of pane or light for changing or deflecting the direction of the light passing therethrough to thereby render the pane more effective in illumination.
    My invention relates to a window-pane having substantially parallel opposed faces on the receiving and discharging sides of the pane and having formed in the interior of the pane one or more cavities extending longitudinally into the pane between the substantially parallel receiving and discharging faces, the walls of the cavity constituting light-deflecting surfaces for changing the direction of the rays of light passing through the pane, whereby the rays may be directed into any desired position. In practice I have usually formed the interior cavity so that the walls thereof constitute a reflecting-surface and entering and leaving refracting-surfaces, and the present invention contemplates the formation of one or more of the deflecting-surfaces of the cavity with a curved transverse dimension, whereby the deflected rays are caused to diverge or converge as desired to direct the same into proper paths, as will be more fully described hereinafter.
    I have illustrated my invention, in connection with a number of modifications thereof, in the accompanying drawings, in which—
    [In an application filed September 22, 1897, Serial No. 652,573, and also in an application filed December 18, 1897, Serial No. 662,417, I have illustrated and described window panes of the same general structure as the pane shown herein, and I hereby reserve for said applications such features of invention as are not specifically claimed herein.]
    Figure 1 is a face view thereof. Fig. 2 is a view showing the reflecting-surface curved. Fig. 3 is a view showing the leaving-surface of the cavity curved.
Fig. 4 is a view showing the reflecting-surface and the leaving refracting-surface of the cavity curved. Fig. 5 is a view showing the reflecting-surface and the entering and leaving refracting-surfaces of the cavity curved. Fig. 6 is a view showing the manner in which the pencils of light determine the form of the cavity.
    Like letters refer to like parts in the several figures.
    As illustrated in Fig. 1, the pane a has a light-receiving surface b and a light-discharging surface c, arranged opposite and running substantially parallel with the light-receiving surface. Within the pane, between the said substantially parallel surfaces a b, are provided a series of cavities d d d. The wall of each cavity is constructed to constitute a reflecting-surface e', which acts to deflect the rays striking the same by reflection. Thus the rays f f enter the receiving-surface of the pane, are refracted, strike the reflecting-surfaces e' e', and are deflected, and in passing from the pane through the discharging-surface are again refracted unless, as in the present case, the rays pass through the discharging-surface at right angles thereto.
    The cavities each has its wall so constructed as to also constitute a refracting-surface h, through which some of the rays pass and are refracted, and also a refracting-surface k, through which the rays pass after traversing the cavity, being again refracted. Thus the rays l l enter the receiving-surface b of the pane and are refracted, pass through the surface h of the cavity, are again refracted, traverse the cavity, pass through the surface h of the cavity, are again refracted, and finally pass through the discharging-surface of the pane, being again refracted. The deflection of the rays l l is thus accomplished wholly by refraction. I have termed the surface h the "entering light-refracting surface" of the cavity and the surface k the "leaving light-refracting surface" of the cavity and will hereinafter refer to the same by these terms.
    The lower surfaces m n of the cavity are preferably not light-deflecting surfaces and may have any desired position, though preferably so arranged as not to conflict with the light-rays reflected from the reflecting-surface of the cavity just beneath, as will be more particularly set forth hereinafter.
    In Fig. 2 the reflecting-surface e' is illustrated as curved, whereby the parallel rays entering the pane are caused to diverge after