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Bicknell's Sash-Cord Guide
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This is Alfred Bicknell's sash-cord guide ("pulley"), Patent No. 83,685,
issued November 3, 1868, and reissued March 19, 1872 as RE4809:

Bicknell's Sash-Cord Guide Bicknell's Sash-Cord Guide
PAT.NOV.3 68
Bicknell's Sash-Cord Guide
No 2

American Glass Window Pulley Company ad in the Boston Commercial Directory for 1869

The simplest, most durable, and very much the cheapest window pulley ever made. Approved by leading architects and builders. For sale by Hardware Dealers. Send for circular and samples to THE AMERICAN GLASS WINDOW PULLEY COMPANY,

Boston Commercial Directory · 1869
Ad for Bicknell's Sash-Cord Guide in Official Catalogue & Journal of the 11th Exhibition of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association · 1869
Official Catalogue & Journal of the
11th Exhibition of the Massachusetts
Charitable Mechanic Association · 1869

He actually invented this a little earlier: it was exhibited at The Tenth Exhibition of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, at Faneuil and Quincy Halls, in the city of Boston, September, 1865:
Alfred Bicknell's Sash-Cord Guide patent No. 83,685
reports of the Judges on page 59 lists "Alfred Bicknell, Boston. New England Window Weight Pulley. Good for light sashes. Diploma." In 1870, it won a third [place] medal and certificate at the 38th Annual Exhibition of the American Institute. The 1872 Boston Directory lists the company's address as "39 Bowker". They appear to have been out of production by about 1885.

I have a set of four, and have seen only a few others for sale (sometimes mis-identified as wire-guide insulators), and a Maine antique dealer reports finding 3 clear and 52 aqua ones at an estate sale. They are uncommon. The embossing on mine reads "PAT. NOV. 3 68" on one side and "NO 2" on the other. Presumably there are several sizes, but only #2 is known for sure: its dimensions are 1 1316" (47mm) long and 1 316" (31mm) diameter.

They were alternatives to the typical metal pulley-wheel guides used in older single and double-hung windows which use a sash-weight on a cord as counterweight:

My invention has for its object to furnish an improved anti-friction grooved guide-block for window-sash cords, which shall be simple in construction, inexpensive in manufacture, and effective in operation, and which is designed to take the place of the ordinary guide-pulleys.

My examples have the square notch ( in fig. 3 of the patent), but the glass was introduced into the mold at that point so there is a "pontil" left over which has not been ground off, thus making the slots useless. The Corning Museum of Glass has a photo showing them inserted into pieces of wood, but it's not clear how they are retained in position.

Bicknell's Sash-Cord Guide in Scientific American, Vol 20, 1869
Scientific American, Vol 20 · 1869

As the inventor says, the title of "pulley" is a misnomer, the device being simply a segment—one half—of a pulley; but the object intended is that attained by the ordinary revolving pulley. The engraving shows the stile of a window frame, containing a semi-disk, or half circle, made of glass, grooved on its periphery to receive a cord, and having shoulders, or rebates, on its sides and on the bottom to hold it in place. The glass segment, A, is set in a mortise through the stile, B, and a similar but narrower mortise—to conform to the reduced thickness of the segment—in a bracket or supplemental stile, C. The dotted lines at D show a thin plate of metal screwed on the window frame to conceal that portion of the mortise necessary only to admit the glass segment. No screws, pivot, plate, or recessing, beyond the slot through the stile, necessary for ordinary pulleys, are required; the segment being merely passed in from the front, and then being held securely by the ledges on its sides and bottom resting against the sides of the mortises.
The cord sustaining the window weight merely slides in the groove of the segment over the smooth glass surface, and thus all creaking of pivots or axles, so annoying to the ill or nervous, and all necessity of occasional oiling is obviated.
The inventor claims the following advantages: Simplicity in construction and application; non-liability to derangement, no screws; no letting in of face-plates; less expensive than other devices; greater friction on the cord, but less wear, requiring a less proportionate weight to balance the sash, and giving a longer life to the cord; no rusting, and always in order, not being affected by the weather.
This device was patented through the Scientific American Patent Agency, Nov. 8, 1868 by Alfred Bicknell. For further information, address American Glass Pulley Company, 56 Congress street, Boston, Mass.

Glass Sash Pulley question in Building Age, Volume 7, 1885
Glass Sash Pulleys.
From A. S., Nashville, Tenn. — A short time since I saw a pair of sashes hung with weights and cord, but in place of iron or brass pulleys in the frame the pulleys were provided with glass thimbles. The owner of the house tells me that the pulleys in question have been in use for over 15 years, and the cords are as good to-day as when first put in. Can you inform me where such goods can be purchased? If not, please refer my question to the readers of Carpentry and Building.
Building Age, Volume 7, 1885

Answer from reader about glass sash pulleys in Building Age, 1886
Answer from reader about glass sash pulleys in Building Age, 1886

Glass Sash Pulleys.
From L. S. H., Boliver, N. Y. — Glass window pulleys were in use as far back as 1867, in South Berwick, Me. They were employed by W. A. McIntyre, with whom I was at that time serving my apprenticeship. They were manufactured by the American Glass Window Pulley Co., and were furnished to the trade by B. D. Washburn, No. 137 Congress street, Boston. The pulleys referred to I do not think were identical with those mentioned by other correspondents of Carpentry and Building; hence I give what information is in my power. I fear, however, that it will be of very little benefit to the correspondent inquiring.
Building Age, Volume 8 · 1886
Glass Sash Pulleys.
From S. W., Newark, Ohio. — Answering the request of "A. S.," of Nashville, Tenn., I would say that while working in Grand Rapids, Mich., in 1873, glass pulleys were being introduced, and were used in the building upon which I was working at that time. They appeared to be the article. They were noiseless and frictionless, the pulley being stationary, the rope simply passing over by means of a hollow crease. The saving in the weight would almost pay for the pulleys. I have a card that was handed to me at that time and which has been laid away so carefully for preservation that I only came across it a short time since. This card contains sizes of sash, their weight, and the number of pounds of sash weights required to run the same, using the glass pulleys. The goods were manufactured, or at least sold, by A. A. Weeks, 105 John street, New York.
Note. — Our correspondent's letter above afford very little information in addition to what is already generally known in the trade. Mr. Weeks, we believe, has not been in the business for a number of years, and, if our information is correct, at the time that he gave up the trade the manufacture and sale of the pulleys were commenced by a company in Brooklyn. They, too, have passed out of action. So far as our inquiries go, glass pulleys are at present entirely out of the market.
Building Age, Volume 8 · 1886