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A blast furnace A plant for manufacturing coal gas
EWING GALLOWAY
A blast furnace A plant for manufacturing coal gas

of cloth woven by machines. We would eat no bread made by machines. We would never go riding in the machines called automobiles. Why?
    Most machines are made mostly of iron and steel. There is plenty of iron in the earth. It is in the earth in the form of iron ore. Before the iron can be used it must be freed from the other materials in the ore by the use of heat and carbon. Heat and carbon are needed, also, to make steel out of iron. Coal and wood charcoal are made up mostly of carbon.
    Freeing iron from the ore is called "smelting." It was a great day in the history of mankind when some man first found out how to smelt iron from the ore by the use of wood charcoal. It was another great day when another man found out how to make steel out of iron, also by using wood charcoal.
    It takes a great deal of wood charcoal to smelt iron out of the ore, and to make steel out of iron. Therefore, in old times iron and steel were scarce and costly. An iron pick was a treasure.
    In those days no one dreamed of inventing big iron or steel machines. What would have been the use? The iron and steel to make a sewing machine or a reaper would have been worth a small fortune. That for a locomotive would have cost a king's ransom.