that the blacks, or parts adhering to the blowing-iron, may be
selected for inferior purposes, or for Glass of a light green colour.
Loss by waste and casualties may be estimated at ten per cent.
Formerly, under the Excise laws, makers
received a very inadequate allowance for waste, which had to be
accounted for weekly; and at least seven and a half per cent. loss
would have accrued to the manufacturer, unless he had evaded the law,
by bringing as many casks of cullet from other parts of the premises,
or weighing as much cullet twice over, as was necessary to make up the
requisite weight. Excise officers permitted the evasion—certainly
a questionable fraud—it being impossible to carry out the Act of
Parliament, with justice to the manufacturer, without his resorting
to self-defense. These facts were laid before Lord Goderich, then
Mr. Robinson, who immediately passed an Act that remedied the evil
which so long had been productive of evasion and immorality, without
any security to the revenue.
One of the simplest articles to make by
hand is the Tumbler; but great attention is required in the gathering,
to obtain very clear Glass, free from stones, specks, or striæ;
also, after marvering, it should be well fire-polished by re-heating
or melting out the marver marks; thus removing the numerous irregular
indentations generally attributed to bad quality, but entirely due to
the carelessness of the workman. To preserve uniformity of weight,
substance, and size, needs great experience and attention.