Home Index Site Map Up: Glassmaking Navigation
Up: Glassmaking

First: The Mentor · The Story of the Lens · Front Cover Last: The Mentor · The Story of the Lens · Back Cover Prev: The Mentor · The Story of the Lens · Page 2 Next: The Mentor · The Story of the Lens · Page 4 Navigation
Lens Story: 5 of 28
·Front Cover
·Page 1
·Page 2
·Page 3
·Page 4
·Page 5
·Page 6
·Page 7
·Page 8
·Page 9
·Page 10
·Page 11
·Page 12
·Gravure 1 Front
·Gravure 1 Back
·Gravure 2 Front
·Gravure 2 Back
·Gravure 3 Front
·Gravure 3 Back
·Gravure 4 Front
·Gravure 4 Back
·Gravure 5 Front
·Gravure 5 Back
·Gravure 6 Front
·Gravure 6 Back
·Back Cover
Optical system of astronomical telescope
beautiful Milky Way. As a result, this belt of silvery light was resolved into a myriad of stars too faint to be distinguished without optical aid, and at such measureless distances that they literally seemed to rub elbows with each other. And yet this galaxy of stars represents
Optical system of binoculars
innumerable blazing suns like our own, separated from each other by millions and millions of miles. A still greater discovery was that of the four moons of Jupiter. Here was a miniature solar system, with its central sun and family of revolving planets. In quick succession Galileo discovered that the planet Venus passes through phases as does our moon, he observed the rings of Saturn, studied the surface of the moon, and, by observation of sun spots, proved the rotation of the sun on its axis.
The Principle of Lenses
    The principle of Galileo's telescope is preserved in the common opera glass. It is of the refracting type, as are all lens telescopes, and to understand the production of images with it we must first become acquainted with the meaning of refraction. Everyone has observed the apparent bending at the water line of an oar looked at obliquely or the misplacement of a line of type when viewed through a thick piece of plate glass. These effects and many other similar ones are due to the bending of light rays as they pass from a medium of one density to a medium of greater or less density. In passing from greater density to less density the ray is bent away from the perpendicular at the point of incidence, but in passing from a less dense medium to a more dense one it is bent toward the perpendicular. Therefore a ray of light from any part of the oar beneath the water in passing into the air
Seventy-two-inch reflecting telescope
Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, B.C.
bends away from the perpendicular at the water line. The point from which the light proceeds seems to be in the direction of the refracted ray and consequently above its true position. Now, it is in this power of glass similarly to bend light rays that its optical properties lie. A figure on page 6 shows the bending of a ray of light in passing through a triangular glass prism. A double convex lens with which images are produced is in reality two triangular prisms placed base to base.
    Lenses are able to produce two kinds of images—real and virtual. A real image is one that may be focused upon a screen and is produced by the actual meeting of the refracted rays of light at the position in which the image appears to be. Real images are always inverted with respect to the object. A magic lantern picture is an illustration of a real image. A virtual image is not formed by the actual focusing of rays of light but by diverging rays which would meet, only if produced in the opposite direction. A virtual image cannot be caught on a screen