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to modern wallpaper. Thus, three distinct branches had sprung from the original root. They remained closely related however. Joseph Chater & Sons have preserved an old ledger dating back to 1820 from which it is apparent that Samuel Hayward, senior, of Bread Street, and his son John Hayward of Newgate Street, both purchased their glass from Leathley, Chater and Hayward. Mostly this came from Newcastle. Other accounts recorded in this ledger show business done with Charles (afterwards Sir Charles) Barry and his brother James, the wholesale stationer, with whom George Hayward, another son of Samuel Hayward, senior, went into partnership some years later. The East India Company and the Hudson Bay Company figure prominently in the accounts of the period and represented two valuable connections which the younger Samuel Hayward and his partners in Leathley, Chater and Hayward would have done their best to safeguard.
    In 1826, old Samuel Hayward died leaving the bulk of his substantial estate, including the Bread Street warehouse and leases in Camberwell and Brighton, to his wife, Anne, his sons, John and Samuel and his son-in-law, the husband of his favorite daughter. The unreliable James, with the ironmongery ambitions, was left two pounds, all his debts being paid up to the date of his father's will which-- fortunately for James-- was executed only a few months before his death.
    Despite appearances James had managed to put something by, or possessed the art of borrowing. No sooner had the old man been laid to rest in the family vault in Christ Church, Newgate Street, than James Hayward blossomed out in his own name, advertising himself grandiloquently as "Ironmonger and Manufacturer of Improved Gas or Lamp Smoke Consumers." His project prospered equally with those of his brothers, John and Samuel, although over the years, owing no doubt to his unstable disposition, his activities fluctuated between the trades mentioned above and the professions of auctioneer and surveyor with occasional sallies into lock-making and brass-foundling. Nevertheless, his contribution to our story is important in that he obviously exerted