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292,559 · Hyatt · "Concrete and Concreted Pavement and Roof-Pavement, and Substructure for the Same" · Page 2
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iron against deterioration from rust; third, to deaden sound; and, fourth,
as a non-conductor, to prevent condensation and dripping of moisture,
and to make a roof cool in summer and warm in winter.
My improvement also consists in the further combination of concrete with both plates and beams in the form of concrete cantalevers to strengthen and stiffen the plates.
My invention also further consists in combining the concrete with the structure as a load between the beams under the plates, to produce vis inertiæ for resisting impact and concussions.
My invention, consists, further, in keying the concrete trottoir or foot-surface of the structure to the protecting under face of concrete, put on to prevent condensation and rusting, by means of plates cast or formed with openings for letting the plastic pass through in sufficient mass to firmly unite and hold the under facing to the top overlayer.
My invention, with reference to public interests, consists, furthermore, in forming a trottoir or foot-surface on the sidewalks of public streets made with water-courses or gutters, the same serving, also, as débris-stops to fruit-skins, to arrest sliding and consequent falling of persons when caught stepping upon such things carelessly thrown in the public footway-- a feature in this part of my invention consisting in forming the gutters to run diagonally across the sidewalk for the purpose of making walking across them easy.
My invention consists, further, in combining metal plates with beams to form metallic roof-pavements by so uniting concrete and metal plates as to produce beam strength and rigidity by the union, and thus render webs or blades of metal on the plates unnecessary, this union being effected by the perforations in the plates, which so interlock the concrete with the metal as to bring into play the compressive resistance of the concrete simultaneously with the tensile resistance of the metal when the structure is weighted and under strain.
Figure 1 is a perspective view representing one of my improved sidewalks. Fig. 2 is a perspective view representing in full size a piece of a plate when made of cast-iron, and designed for a dry foot-surface and a safety one, as against slipping on fruit-skins or similar débris endangering life and limb.
A indicates the main girder that carries the area-covering one side and the sidewalk proper, or trottoir, on the other. B indicates the street-wall at the curb; C, cross-beams, resting at one end upon the wall and at the other upon the girder A; D, metal plates that form the surface of the structure; E, concrete trottoir or foot-surface; F, protecting under layer of concrete; F', concrete keys between B and F; F², between-beam concrete under D to weight structure; G, safety-guttered surface, water, and débris channels; G', between-gutter spaces for concrete filling; E', concrete
filling between gutters; J, glasses for giving light; a a,
keying-holes for concrete to pass through; C C, débris-channels
Fig. 1 represents but a small part of the sidewalk as coated with concrete. This is done in order to more clearly show the naked metal plates-- ten in number-- which cross the beams that are underneath them, after the manner of laying wood floors. The bolts that fasten the plates are not shown, the drawings being on too small a scale.
The cantalever form of the under-surface concrete is indicated by the letter F, where the concrete is brought down in a curve to and rests upon the bottom flanges of the beams.
The between-beam concrete filling underneath the plates to weight the structure and produce a vis inertiæ sufficient to enable the structure to withstand impact and concussion is indicated by the letter F².
I have represented the area between the girder A and the building as covered in the ordinary manner, where grating, tiles, or plates set with small glasses are bolted to supports underneath them, and the joints are made good by bedding, bolting, and packing; but my invention herein set forth is independent of the light construction, and the glasses may be either bull's-eyes or large glass plates, according to fancy.
The end beam of the construction shown by Fig. 1 is purposely omitted in order to better show the edges of the iron plates and the thickness at this point.
F', Fig. 2, shows in full size the strength of the key of concrete which unites the concrete trottoir to the under face of concrete, that protects against rust and prevents condensation and dripping of moisture.
a a, Figs; 1 and 2, indicate the keying-holes that form a feature of the invention, those of full size in Fig. 2 giving a clear idea of their size and formation. The thickness of metal represented may be varied.
b b, Fig. 2, clearly represent the gutters, and show the diagonal lay of the same across the plate.
E', Fig. 2, indicates the between-gutter concrete, that here takes the form of strips or bands, and where light is desired these concrete bands are set with glasses, as indicated by the letter J.
Where the trottoir is formed of plates cast with a safety-surface such as is represented by Fig. 2, I propose to make the width of the concrete strips about three inches and the width of the gutters one inch. Such a surface in a rain would be measurably dry, and gutters only three inches between would be sure to arrest any sliding banana-skin or other fruit débris under the foot of an unfortunate pedestrian and prevent a fall. I design these safety-plates to be employed both for making pavements and roof-pavements.
Fig. 1 represents a surface where the degree of safety is the difference between non-slipping