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68,332 · Hyatt · "Improvement in Illuminating-Roofs and Roof-Pavements" · Page 2
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double or cemented joint, consisting of putty as the lower or horizontal half, and a fusible cement as the upper or vertical half, as will appear more fully in what follows.
    In my illuminating-roof I call the gratings "tiles," to distinguish them from "vault-covers," and I call them so also because their function is that of a "covering" to "framing," where the two combine to form a roof. These tiles differ in construction from my vault-cover of 1845, for the glasses in those were confined to their seats by being held between the two metal plates of which the cover was composed, so that to repair one a number had to be disturbed. Moreover, the strength of the grating was divided between the two plates. My tiles are cast in one plate, with the seats for the glasses in the upper face, so as to be entered from the top side, and each glass is held in position by itself by means of the double-cemented joint. In this way I get stronger, better, and cheaper lights than before. I also make the tiles in narrow strips, by which means I secure the least possible thickness of iron consistently with their strength, for the apertures in these gratings being small, the thickness of the tile is a matter of great importance, the spread of the light through them being dependent on their depth as proportioned to their diameters. Narrow tiles are stronger than wide ones of the same thickness, because hot flowing metal chills in proportion to the smallness of its stream and the distance it travels in the flask. Moreover, in constructing an illuminating-roof, where the illuminating-gratings are the covering, and the work is required to have permanent water-tight joints, narrow tiles are better than wide ones of the same thickness, because the supports are thus multiplied, which make a stiffer roof, and renders the water-tight seams less liable to be broken. When I combine these tiles to form roofs not designed for pavements, I usually make the framing in detached pieces, for convenience of casting and handling; but where I form area-coverings of them, I prefer to make the framing in one casting, the size of areas in general permitting this. Under such circumstances this framing-piece is cast with a border of dead-iron, which forms the boundary of the piece on all sides, like a picture frame, and the inclosed space is at the same time divided into six or more spaces by cross-bars, that are cast with the frame to give it greater strength. The illuminating-tiles are bolted into these spaces each upon a bed of putty, and then the surrounding vertical seam is filled with fusible cement. In this way a double-cemented joint is formed.
    The drawings attached to this specification, and which form parts of it, are as follows, viz: A B C D E.
    The figures on A represent my illuminating-roof as combined to form an area-light or roof-pavement. Figure 1 is a plan; Fig. 2, a longitudinal section through A a. Fig. 3 is an end view. Fig. 4 shows a section of the
frame C", where the tile k k rests upon the putty bed g g, (colored red.) f f show the fusible cement in the vertical seam. c' c'' c'' c''' is the frame, cast in one piece. c' is the front edge. c'' c'' are the ends. c''' is the rear. D D are cross-bars that divide the space into sections corresponding to the illuminating-tiles designed to fill them. d d is the seat or rabbet of the frame in which the tile rests. e e are lugs for the bolts h h. Between the tile and the frame, Fig. 4, Drawing A, g g (colored red) is the bed of putty on which the tile k k rests, and f f is the fusible cement. h h is the bolt that holds k k to the frame c''. i i (colored red) show the putty bed on which the glass rests, and j j show the vertical seam around it, of fusible cement. This figure, 4, Drawing A, is full size. In the plan, Fig. 1, Drawing A, only one space is represented, with an illuminating-tile shown at k. The glasses are here represented as diamond-shaped; but ordinarily they are circular or hexagonal. F on Fig. 3 is the rising lip at the rear of the frame, (shown enlarged on Drawing E,) to which the lower part of the illuminating-riser is bolted and packed to make a water-tight joint.
    Drawing E shows how the illuminating-sill, illuminating-riser, and area-light are combined to make tight joints.
    Drawing B is a sectional elevation of a building, where A is the area-space underneath the area-light A L. V S is the vault-space under the sidewalk S W, here formed of granite slabs. B is the basement. P S is the first or principal story. d s is the illuminating door-sill. r is the illuminating-rider under the door-sill; F, the "rising lip" of the area-light. G is the nosing of the area-light where it sets over the iron riser at the sidewalk. As here represented, the "web" of the iron girder T forms the riser to the area-light. This girder also supports the sidewalk as well as the area-light; but sometimes stone coping is used to inclose the area. In such cases I set the iron frame of my area-light into a rabbet cut in the coping, and bed it on putty and fill the vertical space with fusible cement, bolting the frame to the stone coping at the same time.
    Drawing C is a front elevation of B, to show the illuminating-risers, and also the levels of the floor of the principal story and of the area-light, and the "pitch" of the sidewalk.
    Drawing D is a plan at the sidewalk, S W being the sidewalk, composed of four granite slabs, as here shown, A L being the area-light space, and d s the light-space for the illuminating-sills at the doorways. These sills are let into the granite pillars G P and bolted fast to them, as well as to the side walls of the building, and bind the whole together.
    Now, although I have made my improvements in the architecture of buildings by means of the very best combination of iron and glass that can possibly exist, yet I wish it to be distinctly understood that the extension of basements under the street by means of an