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257,712 · Hyatt · "Constructing and Repairing Illuminating-Roofs, &c." · Page 2
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and quarries which make possible the monomorphous character are the improvements in the mode of constructing the hand-size gratings shown by Fig. 6, where the quarry is made with no dead material at the borders, and by Fig. 8, where the glasses are formed with shoulders or necks that rise about half an inch above the face of the quarry, in combination with foundation-gratings constructed as shown by Figs. 1, 2, 3. The effect of making glass-holding quarries without borders, as illustrated by Fig. 6, is to produce an equality of dead lines throughout the entire construction, no matter how many quarries are employed, because the bare sides of the glasses become in the combination cemented equally to the bars of the foundation-gratings, to this extent causing the foundation-gratings to become also the carriers of the glasses, so that when the bars of the foundation-gratings are made no thicker than the bars of the quarries between the glasses the whole work seems like one piece. Illuminating-surfaces of naked iron and glass may in this way be made of any size and of a perfect monomorphous character.
    In the illustrations I have given I have represented the glasses as square and the lines as straight; but the principle of construction applies equally to circular and other shaped glasses, and to curved as well as straight lines.
    Figs. 8 and 9 are designed to not only illustrate a method of making monomorphous concrete lights and illuminating constructions, but to also illustrate my invention of improvements in repairing old work.
    The invention consists substantially in setting an iron grating with glasses made of a depth so great as to rise above the level of the glass-holders sufficiently to become the means to of fastening to the face of the grating a facing body of hydraulic cement or concrete.
    Figs. 8 and 9 represent new work and show the glasses formed with the neck g. The quarries are made as shown by Fig. 8, and when set in the foundation-grating, as shown by Fig. 9, a monomorphous finishing-coat of Portland cement, pure or with aggregates, is put over the face of the work and "floated" to the level or tops of the glasses, as represented by the dotted surface of Fig. 9.
    Where the work is repairing I knock out all the old glasses of the construction, whether top roof or area covering, and replace them with glasses of greater depth, the new glasses being deep enough to rise above the face of the metal gratings sufficiently to hold and fix the facing of cement or concrete put between the glasses as described, and as illustrated by Fig. 9.
    Fig. 4 represents three new features (and important ones) connected with the construction of illuminating-roofs over the rear extensions of the principal stories of buildings-- viz., ventilation, prevention of sweating, and prevention of leakage. The curved form of the foundation-gratings establishes the curved
form of the roof, and makes unnecessary a curved illuminating-grating or glass-holder. These roofs as made commonly are formed of curved glass-holders, the "illuminating-tiles" used for such work being the actual roof. In my new construction the gratings that carry the glasses, being of hand size or quarries, may be entirely flat without destroying the curved appearance of the roof. Hence in these constructions the curved foundation-gratings form a part of my improvements in illuminating-roofs. Ventilation is effected in these roofs by means of the ventilating-scuttles shown in Fig 4. The lower half of the grating is represented with a coating of concrete to show my invention of curved concreted illuminating rear extension-roofs. In the construction of such roofs I first incrust each separate grating with concrete, the same being done in suitable molds. These concreted gratings are then brought to the building and placed in position, and the illuminating-quarries, also made of concrete and glass, are cemented within the openings of the grating-foundation. The surfaces of both the foundation-gratings and the quarries being concrete, a mortar or grout of hydraulic cement makes a bond between the two as water-tight and perfect as the bond between two bricks. The iron of the construction being all embedded in concrete, no "sweating" takes place. For the same reason no expansions and contractions take place, and by consequence no leakages from expansions and contractions. This roof construction I desire to distinguish from my former inventions where the roofs are made of concreted glass-holding gratings combined with rafters. In the construction hereinabove described my improvement consists in combining glass-holding quarry gratings with concreted foundation-gratings.
    Fig. 8 represents a new mode of constructing illuminating-grating stoop and step roofs over sunk areas. As ordinarily made these roofs are formed of flat illuminating-gratings bolted to "string-pieces," the form of the stoop and steps being determined by the form of the string-pieces; but by my new method, as illustrated by. Fig. 5, the stoop and step form is obtained in the foundation-grating itself, which is cast in one piece, as shown in the figure, the openings being closed either with glass plates or with illuminating-quarries after the foundation-gratings have been placed in position.
    Having thus fully and clearly described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is--
    1. Illuminating-roofs and roof-pavements made by combining quarry glass holders with foundation-gratings, substantially as and for the purposes herein set forth and illustrated.
    2. Monomorphous illuminating-roofs and roof-pavements constructed substantially as and for the purposes herein set forth and illustrated.
    3. Illuminating-roofs made by combining