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607,792 · Winger · "Window Pane or Light" · Page 2
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leaving the pane. The refracting-surfaces h and k are shown
In Fig. 3 the leaving-surface k' of the cavity is illustrated as curved, while the entering-surface h and the reflecting-surface e are plane. Parallel rays pass through the receiving-surface b and the entering-surface h without diffusion and are diffused by the non-planular surface k'.
In Fig. 4 the reflecting-surface e' and the leaving refracting-surface k' are curved, while the entering refracting-surface is plane.
In Fig. 5 all of the deflecting-surfaces are curved—that is, the reflecting-surface e', the entering-surface of the cavity h', and the leaving-surface of the cavity k' are curved. By this construction each of the deflecting-surfaces serves to diffuse the light-rays.
When it is desired to cause the rays acted upon by one of the deflecting-surfaces to diverge or converge, the transverse dimension of the deflecting-surface is curved—that is, the dimension of the deflecting-surface which lies in the plane which includes the deflected ray before and after deflection is curved—whereby the angle of deflection will vary throughout the width or transverse dimension of the deflecting-surface. As shown in the drawings, one or more of the deflecting-surfaces may be curved, as desired.
In Fig. 6 I have illustrated the light as entering and passing through the pane in pencils and have shown how the pencils determine the form of the cavity. In the present instance the lowermost ray of the pencil enters the pane at an angle of seventy degrees. The panes are preferably designed for the particular conditions of use, and the principal element in this consideration is the nature of the pencil of light as determined by surrounding objects or buildings which intercept light which would otherwise pass through the pane. Thus in cities, and particularly in the business districts, the lowermost ray of the pencil will be determined by the height of the building across the way. The angle which the lowermost ray passing over the opposite building makes with the pane is the angle which in practice I preferably employ as defining the lowermost ray of the pencil of light which I employ in designing the cavities in the pane. For the purpose of illustration I have chosen this angle as seventy degrees. The pencil of light o is shown as entering the pane, being refracted into the pencil o', striking the reflecting-surface e and being reflected into the pencil o², and then passing from the pane, being refracted into the pencil o³. The portion of the pencil striking the refracting-surface h is refracted into the pencil o4 and in passing the refracting-surface k is refracted into the pencil o5 and, finally, into the pencil o6. The uppermost ray of the pencil o4 determines the preferable position for the reflecting-surface, which should be so situated that the uppermost ray of this
pencil o4 will not strike the reflecting-surface,
but will pass through the refracting-surface k. The pencil
of light p is refracted into the pencil p', passes
through the refracting-surface h, is refracted into the pencil
p², thence into the pencil p³, and finally into
the pencil p4. The portion of the pencil passing just
below the end of the refracting-surface h, forming the pencil
p5, strikes the reflecting-surface e of the
next cavity below, is reflected into the pencil p6,
and then refracted into the pencil p7. The lower
surface m should coincide with the uppermost ray of the
pencil p5 in order that interference may not result.
The extreme upper ray of the pencil p5 determines the
position of the lower surface in of the cavity. The pencil r
refracts into the pencil r', which strikes the extreme rightward
end of the reflecting-surface e, and is reflected into the
pencil r², which is finally refracted into the pencil
r³. The uppermost ray of the pencil r² determines
the position of the surface n of the cavity. The entering-surface
h and the leaving-surface k of the cavity may occupy such
angular positions relatively as to direct the rays at the desired angle.
The lower end of the leaving-surface k should be located at
the intersection of the uppermost ray of the pencil r and the
lowermost ray of the pencil p².|
In practice I preferably form the window light or pane of a number of small panes or lights v v' v², secured together at the edges by any preferred form of framework, Fig. 1. These smaller panes are each preferably formed in a single and integral piece and are molded of glass, having the interior cavity or cavities extending longitudinally through the pane. These lengthwise cavities may be open at one end, as shown in the pane v, or open at both ends, as shown in pane v', or sealed at both ends, as shown in pane v². The receiving and discharging surfaces of the pane are illustrated herein as plane surfaces; but they may have other form, as desired, without departing from my invention.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is—
1. As a new article of manufacture, a pane formed of a single and integral piece of transparent material, as glass, having formed therein and inclosed between the light-receiving and light-discharging surfaces one or more interior cavities, the walls of which are constructed to form curved light-reflecting and curved entering and leaving light-refracting surfaces, substantially as described.
2. A pane formed of a single and integral piece of glass having opposed and substantially parallel light-receiving and light-discharging surfaces and having formed therein an interior cavity extending longitudinally into the pane between said substantially parallel receiving and discharging surfaces, said cavity having a wall constituting a light-deflecting