wine-glasses, goblets, tumblers, lamp-chimney glasses, and a few
other miscellaneous articles. This department, and the first and second
chair, require workmen of considerable tact and skill.
The fourth chair does not need the
skilled workman of the three former; the men are paid inferior wages,
especially as their productions secure less remunerative prices; they,
however, require to be remarkably active. One finisher and two
blowers, with a boy to keep the mould warm, (with lumps of hot glass,)
and another boy as taker-in, are requisite. Thus, phials are re-heated
for forming the brims, by a plus pressure of flame proceeding at once
from the furnace.
The above four sets of workmen, with a
teazer and lear man, changing every six hours, constitute the complement
for one furnace; four sets being at rest while other four are employed.
Some manufacturers dispense with the bottle-chair, and have in place of
it another wine-glass chair, or such substitution as best suits their
Glass-blowers have arrangements as to their
classes and modes of operation, probably unlike any other branch of
trade, being divided into four different coteries, or "chairs," as they
are technically called; three of each having their chief—viz.,
first, a gaffer, or workman, the second, a servitor; and the third,
a foot-maker; the latter usually earns about half the wages paid to
the chief, and the servitor receives an intermediate amount. The boy,
or taker-in, is paid separately, but also by the piece, according to
the earning of the chair. Three of the chairs are thus manned.
Boys of ten years old, after being three
or four years takers-in, and availing themselves now and then of the