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Chapter III



"High endeavours are an inward light
That makes the path before him always bright."
William Wordsworth


    The senior partner in Hayward Brothers was just sixty years old when he patented his most important invention. On the last day of July 1871, Patent No. 2014 was granted for "Improvements in Pavement Lighting" designed not merely to allow light to pass through, but also to direct the light in an inclined direction into the room to be lighted. For this purpose, the specification stated that the frame was to be glazed "with glass moulded so as to be of a prism-like form on the under side, resembling to some extent in this respect the glasses which are often inserted into ships' decks to give light below. The form and arrangement of the prism is, however, entirely altered in order that the light may be thrown forward in one direction. One of the sides of the prism is upright, or nearly so, and the other is inclined to it at such an angle that the light passing through the upper surface may strike this inclined side and be reflected completely or nearly so, within the prism and issue from the upright, or nearly upright side, in the direction required. The sides of the prism may be flat or curved in a horizontal plane."
    The patentee then went on to state that he usually formed the glasses hexagonal on the upper surface, and fitted them into an iron