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Diagram illustrating the principle of Edward Hayward's invention
Diagram illustrating the principle of Edward Hayward's invention

found the same block of glass or lens, taken and cut into halves, gave quite a different result. The rays of light were now thrown quite distinctly into certain directions, and the resultant rays of reflected light could be varied by different angles of incidence.
    The firm had been established for nearly a century before this dramatic development occurred. Earlier types of pavement lights had been manufactured by Edward and William Hayward for some years but they were very much the same as those made by a dozen firms. In 1862, the order of precedence-- and presumably of commercial importance-- on the brothers' notepaper and bill-headings was first, Sheringham's Ventilator, second, Arnott's Chimney Valves, third, coal plates (glazed, solid iron or ventilating), fourth, glazed pavement lights with the various types of stoves last of all. The catalogue of ten years later, issued shortly after the invention had been safeguarded, was devoted purely to the advantages of Hayward's Patent Hexagonal and Semi-Prismatic Pavement Lights. The description given translates the formal language of the patent deed into plain English easily understood by the working builder. Comparisons with other types show the superiority of Edward Hayward's lights, the first of which, it is stated, had been fixed in the pavement round the frontage of Mansion House Buildings at the corner of Poultry and Queen Victoria Street, where at the time of writing they are still in service.
    "Unlike any ordinary reflectors (which become tarnished or covered with dust)," states the catalogue, "these retain their